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English Russian translator based in Ukraine offers English Russian translation, English Ukrainian translation, Russian English translation and Ukrainian English translation. I translate English to Russian for 1 cent per word. I also translate Russian to English at the same unbeatable price. This Russian translation service is mostly for men seeking a wife in Russia or Ukraine. Russian English translator makes English to Russian translation and English to Ukrainian translation within 24 hours (mostly 12 hours). English Russian translator provides fast Russian translation service and information about this cyrillic language: popular Russian words and phrases, Russian fonts and more... Russian language translator living in Ukraine also gives detailed Ukraine info.

 
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Last Update
April 4, 2005
 

History of Ukraine - The Cossack Republic

- The word Cossack means a free and independent man. Cossacks were first mentioned in writing in 1492. In the sixteenth century the Cossacks united in a single military organization. The first fortifications were built on Mala Khortytsia Island, in the lower reaches of Dnieper, beyond the rapids. Hence the name, Zaporizhia.

The word sich comes from Ukrainian sikty, meaning to chop up, cut because the Cossacks cut trees to make their fortifications of wood.

Fighting the enemies of the Eastern Orthodox faith and for the independence of the native land was the predominant idea of the Sich host. The end of the sixteenth century witnessed joint peasant-Cossack revolts against the Polish social, economic, religious and cultural oppression. In 1648 a national liberation war broke out in Ukraine, led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky. That same year the Polish army lost several battles to the Cossack forces. On December 23, 1648, Kyiv joyously welcomed the victorious Cossacks. But this was just the beginning. Ahead lay the long years of armed struggle for the Ukrainian people's freedom and independence, with the Cossacks playing the crucial role.

Squeezed between the three powerful countries — Muscovy, Poland and the Ottoman Empire with its vassal Crimean Khanate, Ukraine had to seek allies. This led to the Treaty of Pereyaslav (1654), a military and political alliance with Russia. In 1667 Moscow and Warsaw divided Ukraine between the two of them, whereby the Right Bank went to Poland and the Left Bank to Muscovy. For the Ukrainian people it was sheer political disaster.

The Ukrainian Cossacks played an important role in European political history. In 1621 a Cossack host led by Hetman P.Sagaidachny, in an alliance with Poland, defeated the Turko-Tatar army and stopped the Ottoman Empire's onslaught in Europe. Cossacks were in the front ranks of Russian forces in the Russo-Turkish wars of the 18th century, and in battles against the Crimean Tatars.


 

 

 

 
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Ukrainian History
Kiev Rus period
Halych-Volyn Rus
Cossacks
Hetman Khmelnitsky
Independent Ukraine
National symbols
Ukrainian Flag
Coat of Arms - Trident (Tryzub)
Ukrainian Anthem
 
 
 
 
 

Summary of this page: English Russian translator offers English Russian translation, English Ukrainian translation, Russian English translation and Ukrainian English translation. I translate English to Russian for $0.01 per word. I also translate Russian to English at the same price. Not free Russian translation but very close. Russian translation service is mostly for men seeking a wife in Russia or Ukraine. Russian English translater makes English to Russian translation and English to Ukranian translation within 24 hours (mostly 12 hours). English Russian translater provides fast Russian translation service. Russian language translater in Ukraine.


 Copyright ©  2005 English Russian translator Igor Shevkoplyas